Backgammon ( in Persia where it is known as “Takhteh Nard” )which, roughly translated, means “Battle on Wood”.

Archaeological excavations in the Shahr-e Sukhteh (Persian: شهر سوخته‎, meaning “The Burnt City”) in iran, show that this game existed in Iran in 3000 BC.

But the story of emergence: in the reign of Khosrow I (Persian: خسرو), traditionally known by his epithet of Anushirvan (انوشيروان “the Immortal Soul”), was the Sasanian King of Kings of Iran from 531 to 579. King of India to assess the wisdom of the Iranians and prove their superiority chess pieces of emerald and ruby, along with gifts exquisite sent and A wise man was also commissioned to do so.

He wrote in a letter to the king of Iran: “Since you are our emperor, your wise men must be superior to our wise men. “So either tell us the method of what we have that sent (chess) you or give us coins from now on.”

After reading the letter, the Shah of Iran asked for a forty-day respite, and none of the sages found a solution in those few days, until the last day of Bozorgmehr, who was the wisest minister of khosrow Anoushiravan, stood up and said: “The two sides are fighting with their pieces, and the one who has more wisdom and foresight wins.” And told the complete secrets of the game of chess and how to pick pieces.

khosrow Anoushiravan king of Iran congratulated him three times and rewarded him with twelve thousand coins. After that, the Indian envoy played with Bozorgmehr. Bozorgmehr defeated the Indian envoy three times.

He wrote in a letter to the king of Iran: “Since you are our emperor, your wise men must be superior to our wise men. “So either tell us the method of what we have that sent (chess) you or give us coins from now on.”

After reading the letter, the Shah of Iran asked for a forty-day respite, and none of the sages found a solution in those few days, until the last day of Bozorgmehr, who was the wisest minister of khosrow Anoushiravan, stood up and said: “The two sides are fighting with their pieces, and the one who has more wisdom and foresight wins.” And told the complete secrets of the game of chess and how to pick pieces.

khosrow Anoushiravan king of Iran congratulated him three times and rewarded him with twelve thousand coins. After that, the Indian envoy played with Bozorgmehr. Bozorgmehr defeated the Indian envoy three times.

The next day, Bozorgmehr summoned the Indian representative and showed him another toy, saying, “If you answer this, we will not charge you a ransom, and if you cannot, you must pay us a ransom.” The king of India asked for a forty-day respite, but none of the sages of that land could answer Bozorgmehr’s question, and so the king of India agreed to pay a ransom to Iran.

This story is mentioned with a bit of exaggeration in the books, but apart from these exaggerations, backgammon is an irreplaceable game. Of course, the writings of historians are often exaggerated, and this is where archeology comes in to confirm the information. But the confirmation of the fact that this game has an Iranian name, shape and form and was invented by the Iranians is quite clear.

Backgammon has gone to India through the Sassanids frome Iran and Departed from India to China.

The philosophy of the backgammon bed and its meaning inspired by the beliefs of the ancient Iranians:

  • 30 beads: Indicates 30 days and nights of a month
  • 24 houses: 24 hours a day
  • 4 parts of the earth: 4 seasons of the year
  • 5 playing hands: symbol 5 times a day (morning, noon, afternoon, evening, night)
  • 2 colors black and white: night and day
  • Each side of the earth has 12 houses: 12 months of the year
  • Backgammon: Earth
  • Playground: Sky
  • Dice: Lucky Star
  • Circulation of dice: Circulation of days
  • Beads: Humans
  • Bead rotation on Earth: Human movement (life)
  • Remove the nut at the end of each game: Death of humans

Meaning and concept of dice numbers (why dice have 6 numbers ?? why not 7 or 8?)

Number 1: The Oneness of God

Number 2: Heaven and Earth

Number 3: Good Thought; Good speech, good deeds

Number 4: in the land of Iran refers to four main elements. Which is considered the source of life and sacred. Because God created man, heaven and earth with these four elements. So these four elements are respectable: water, wind, soil, fire.

Number 5: Sun, moon, star, fire, thunder (five bright rays of sacred and natural distribution which is one of the blessings of God) Light has been one of the pillars of the ancient religions of Iran.

Number 6: Six Days of Creation (Ancient Iranians and some monotheistic religions believed that the world came into being in 6 stages or 6 days)

The interesting thing is that the sum of the numbers facing each other on the sides of the dice is always seven, that is, a number that has been cherished by Iranians.

Backgammon was invented in Ancient Persia by Bozorgmehr in response to the chess game that the king of India sent to khosrow Anoushiravan, and in honor of Ardashir I, the founder of the Sassanid dynasty, he named it Nivardshir, meaning noble Ardeshir.

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